Data-driven models for predicting the outcome of autonomous wheel loader operations
K. Aoshima, A. Fälldin, E. Wadbro and M. Servin. Data-driven models for predicting the outcome of autonomous wheel loader operations [arxiv:2309.12016] (2023). [pdf]
This paper presents a method using data-driven models for selecting actions and predicting the total performance of autonomous wheel loader operations over many loading cycles in a changing environment. The performance includes loaded mass, loading time, work. The data-driven models input the control parameters of a loading action and the heightmap of the initial pile state to output the inference of either the performance or the resulting pile state. By iteratively utilizing the resulting pile state as the initial pile state for consecutive predictions, the prediction method enables long-horizon forecasting. Deep neural networks were trained on data from over 10,000 random loading actions in gravel piles of different shapes using 3D multibody dynamics simulation. The models predict the performance and the resulting pile state with, on average, 95% accuracy in 1.2,ms, and 97% in 4.5,ms, respectively. The performance prediction was found to be even faster in exchange for accuracy by reducing the model size with the lower dimensional representation of the pile state using its slope and curvature. The feasibility of long-horizon predictions was confirmed with 40 sequential loading actions at a large pile. With the aid of a physics-based model, the pile state predictions kept sufficiently accurate for longer-horizon use.

Overview of the model, its development process, and intended usage.


The research was supported in part by Komatsu Ltd, Algoryx Simulation AB, and Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing at High-Performance Computing Center North (HPC2N).

UMIT Research Lab, Digital Physics